In the jharkhand movement there are 430 tribal communities of India .There is a problem of existence, identity and development and rest of the population not only in term of their distinctive economy and technology but also in term of physical isolation and social interaction with the group.
In the word of Jharkhand meaning “forest region” applies to forested mountain ,plateau region in eastern part of India. In the more extensive claim of the movement Jharkhand comprises seven districts in Bihar , three In West Bengal , four in Odisha, and two in Madhya pradesh. There are Ninety percent of Scheduled Tribes in Jharkhand live in the Bihar Districts.
In 1912 Bihar and Orissa was separated from Bengal In 1936, Orissa was also
separated from Bihar All this had its effect on the educated tribals It assured them that the way
to political power and progress lies in the formation of a separate state
The tribal peoples, who are from two groups 1) Chotanagpur and 2) Santals , have been the main agitators for the movement.
The tribes have been undergoing a variety of socio- political changes of the particularly for the last two hundred years.
Jharkhand movement repudiated the Nehruvian model of nation building by reinventing regionalism as the basis of state reorganization in India. The modern tribal movement for regional autonomy is a phenomenon after India got independence. Jharkhand movement too is such a phe Jharkhand movement repudiated the Nehruvian model of nation building by reinventing regionalism as the basis of state reorganization in India. nomenon. The main aim of the Jharkhand movement was the creation of a separate “Adivasi state”. Before independence, it was the main issue. But after independence, decks were clear to orient the movement from ethnicity to regionalism. With this, Adivasi Mahasabha got affected since they were the champions for separate Adivasi state. According to 1941 census the “land” of Jharkhand had only 44 percent of tribals, thus the demand of having a separate tribal state could not be fulfilled. This resulted in the formation of a new regional party, ‘United Jharkhand Party’ in 1948.The Jharkhand Party declared to establish a separate state comprising of mineral belts of Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. The demand for a separate state includes autonomy and preservation of tribal culture and language. This was made by 52 MLAs of Bihar Assembly , who were also in opposition in the Assembly under the initiative taken by Devendra Champia.
Failing to make Jharkhand as a separate state, there was a lot of contradiction within the Jharkhand Party. In 1963 a section of it joined the congress and with that the movement got slackened. Further disintegration the party resulted in losing the people’s verdict for a separate statehood. A lot of parties emerged after like Birsa Seva Dal, Jharkhand Peoples Party, Jharkhand Kranti Dal, Jharkhand Vichar Manchs and so on.
A new party Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) under the leadership of Sibu Soren came into prominence. The political dominance of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha was upon 1984. Then again a lean period in the process of the movement was seen. The verdict started shifting towards the non-congress national party as now they thought it would be efficient to have their members in the ministry at the centre. Thus Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) emerged as a major political force. Their main aim was to assimilate the region in the national political system and came up with the proposal of making “Jharkhand” as “Vananchal”. As Bharatiya Janata Party was a new party with high probability of being in or near centre , the people supported them freely. They were the first national non-Jharkhand party, who supported the issue of Jharkhand. And after the failure of Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) and the chargesheet ofA Sibu Soren and Suraj Mandal, JMM leaders, there was no choice for the people to vote for them. Thus in the 1996 general election, BJP made almost a clean sweep by winning 14 seats out of 16 Lok Sabha from this region. On August 2, 2000, the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000. On that day it became the 28th state of India.
Thus the Jharkhand movement since its inception passed through different phases:
Jharkhand Movement session 1797- 1900
- 1797 – The Munda uprising of Bunda – leader – Bisu Manki
- 1798-99 – The Bhumy Revolt of Manbhum – leader – Bisu Manki
- 1800 – The Chero uprising of Palamau – leader – Bhukan Singh
- 1807 -The Munda uprising of Tamar – leader – Dukhan Manki
- 1819-20 – The Munda uprising, Tamar – leader – Rudu and Kanta
- 1832-33 – The Kol Rebellion – leaders – Smghray and Bindray Manki
- 1834 – The Bhumij Revolt – leader – Ganga Naram
- 1855 – The Santhal – Insurrection leaders – Sidhu and Kanhu
- 1875-95 – The Sardar Movement in Chotanagpur
- 1895-1900 – The Birsa Movement
IMPACT OF Jharkhand Movement
A tribal perspective from Jharkhand describes how the creation of the state, for the welfare of tribal populations, has only led to their exploitation and displacement. Demands for separate statehood for Jharkhand were first raised in 1914 by tribals. Tribal movement For separate state Jharkhand become a state on November 15, 2000.Jharkhand means “The land of forest, Tribal Land account 40% of the “Mineral Resources” in “India”. Ramachandra Guha expresses commonly offered opinion when he states that: “Official acknowledgement of the history of adivasi suffering … came through the creation … of two states of the Union named “Jharkhand” and “Uttarakhand”
The Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj -1920
Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj was formed for improving the socio economic conditions of tribal people.
Non-tribals were excluded from the being members. This implanted a sense of identity among the tribal people. and survival is unity which would be possible through an organisation so, in July 1920 there are attended by several leaders from different tribal communities to form an organization Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj was formed under the leadership of Rev Joel Lakra and The Samaj published a magazine called ” Adivasi “. The present movement was quite different from the other once in that it was led by education groups of tribal youth and was silently revolutionaary in character.
The Kisan Sabha 1931
some differences cropped up among the members of the chotanagpur Unnati Samaj and at a result, the dissidents group left it and formed an organisation called the Kisan Sabha the foremost task of this organization was drawing attention towards the problems of the peasants. This organization consisted of the mixed tribals. The first president of this organisation was Theble Oraon and its secretary was Paul Dayal who was not a tribal.
“Santali is only the language of Santals Among the 62 tribal communities of Orissa
there are 53 tribal communities in Mayurbhanj and Santal is one of them. As Santals have their
own language as Santali language, like this other tribal communities have also their own
languages. In this connection, in Orissa there are other four scnpts have invented.